“Spurious Dragon” the 4TH Ethereum Hard Fork
Ethereum is a public blockchain-based distributed computing platform, featuring smart contract functionality. It provides a decentralized virtual machine (EVM), which executes peer-to-peer contracts using a cryptocurrency called ether.
“Spurious Dragon” is the forth hard fork in the history of Ethereum and the second of the two-round hard fork response to the DoS attacks on the Ethereum network since few months. The previous hard fork “Tangerine Whistle” is meant to address urgent overload for the execution for the execution of the code operations (see “Ethereum Improvement Proposal 150”).
However, the network is still filled with pending transactions which is causing users delays in processing their transactions. The attacker performed a DoS attack by repeatedly calling certain operation codes (opcodes) in their smart contracts that are computationally difficult for clients to process, but very cheap to add to the network.
This hard fork will improve the Ethereum protocol
- EIP 155: Replay attack protection – prevents transactions from one Ethereum chain from being rebroadcasted on an alternative chain.
- EIP 160: EXP cost increase – adjusts the price of `EXP` opcode so it balances the price of `EXP` with the computational complexity of the operation, essentially making it more difficult to slow down the network via computationally expensive contract operations.
- EIP 161: State trie clearing – makes it possible to remove a large number of empty accounts that were put in the state at very low cost as a result of earlier DoS attacks.
- EIP 170: Contract code size limit – changes the maximum code size that a contract on the blockchain can have.
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